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Posts from the “Myths” Category

True or False: Most vegetarians don’t get enough protein?

Posted on November 19, 2019

False.

Roughly 3% OF adults identify themselves as vegetarians because they eat a plant-based diet. However, there are different types of vegetarians.

Vegans, for example, don’t eat any food of animal origin. Lacto-vegetarians will consume dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt. Lacto-ovo- vegetarians eat eggs in addition to dairy products, and pesco-vegetarians will eat dairy, eggs, and fish.

There are health benefits associated with following a vegetarian diet. They tend to be lower in saturated fat and cholesterol, higher in fiber, and higher in vitamins and antioxidants. Plus vegetarians tend to keep their body weight at healthier levels.

If you do much reading in the area of nutrition, you will likely see that many people—especially athletes and vegetarians—are obsessed with protein intake. More than a few harbor an unfounded concern that we are not getting enough protein. In fact, most research and registered dietitians report that just the opposite is true: the average person appears to get adequate amounts of protein, and that holds true for vegetarians as well.

In a study published in the European Journal of Nutrition, Waldmann and colleagues (2003) examined dietary intake of adult vegans. They reported that their subjects’ mean carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes were 57.1%, 29.7% and 11.6% respectively, meeting current recommendations.

The Institute of Medicine recommends that adults get 45–65% of their calories from carbohydrates, 20–35% from fat and 10–35% from protein.

Vegetarians commonly consume from 10–12% of their calories from protein; that number is 14–18% for non-vegetarians. Both fall within recommended guidelines.

Some folks have the misconception that only foods from animal sources contain protein, which is not true. For example, a cup of oatmeal contains 6 grams of protein, a cup of cooked spinach contains 5 grams of protein, two slices of whole-wheat bread contain 5 grams of protein, and four ounces of tofu contain about 10 grams of protein.

Amino acids are commonly referred to as the building blocks of protein. There are 20 common amino acids, but our bodies make only 11 of these. We must get the other nine, called essential amino acids, from our diets.

Nutritionists used to believe that the best way to take in these essential amino acids was from animal sources or by combining certain grains, vegetables, legumes and nuts based on the essential amino acids they contained (some foods are higher in certain essential amino acids than others).

Today most nutritional experts shy away from the food-combination approach, as it can get complex and confusing. They simply recommend that vegetarians eat a wide variety of healthy foods throughout the day: fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes and whole grains.

Waldmann, A., Koschizke, J., Leitzmann, C., & Hahn, A: Dietary intakes and lifestyle factors of a vegan population in Germany: results from the German Vegan study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2003), Vol 57, pp. 947-955.

True or False: Fruits are often picked before they are ripe, and gases are used to speed the final ripening process?

Posted on July 30, 2019

True.

Our family eats a lot of fruit. It would be nearly impossible to walk through our kitchen or look into our fridge and not see apples, bananas, peaches, pears, blueberries or grapes.

We prefer fresh fruits whenever possible. For example, every spring we make multiple visits to a pick-your-own strawberry farm just a few miles from our home. We hop on a hay trailer pulled by a tractor that leads us through the woods to a number of huge, hidden fields filled with strawberry patches.

What a joy it is to pick strawberries fresh off the plant and to see our kids get excited about eating something so healthy for them! As evidence of our visit and their indulgence, the red strawberry-juice stain around their mouths lasts nearly the entire day.

We live in the Midwest, and I’m writing this the morning after a moderate winter storm left us with just over six inches of beautiful, fluffy white snow. I know there are no strawberries under that snow, so when I eat fruit in the winter, I always check the container to see where it was grown. For strawberries, it is always California—always!

Seeing the origin prompts me to think: How can they pick fruit in a state like California and ship it to the Midwest without having it spoil or get overripe?

Fruit goes through a gradual ripening process. I’m sure most of us have taken a bite of a banana that’s not quite ripe and found an unpleasant, bitter taste. As fruit ripens, it becomes softer, more colorful and sweeter, which is why the yellow banana tastes better than the green one—for most of us, anyway.
But ripe fruits don’t ship well because they are softer and more likely to bruise and spoil or get damaged over the miles. at’s why so many fruits are picked before they ripen, including the strawberries my family eats during the winter. Agents such as ethylene gas are used to speed the ripening process of fruits at their destination. Ethylene is a hormone naturally found in plants and is generally recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration. Most fruits produce small amounts of ethylene on their own, so ripening fruit with ethylene simply speeds the normal ripening process. There are no chemical or physiological differences in fruit allowed to ripen on the vine versus those ripened with introduced ethylene.
Cutting, scraping or damaging fruit will increase ethylene production, and shortening the ripening time this way has its roots in biblical times. In the article “One rotten apple spoils the whole bushel: The role of Ethylene in fruit ripening” (1992), Athanasios Theologis writes, “ The earliest record of human manipulation causing fruit to ripen is in the Old Testament: the prophet Amos described himself as a ‘piercer’ of sycamore fig fruit. The Greek philosopher Theophrastus later recognized that sycamore figs do not ripen unless they are scraped with an iron claw.”

In fact, that is where the saying “One rotten apple spoils the whole bushel” comes from. It is possible for one damaged apple to start releasing increased amounts of ethylene and spoil apples stored with it. The snow and cold weather will be gone soon enough, and we’ll be able to take another trip to the strawberry patch where we can pick and eat strawberries until we’re ready to burst. Until then, I will settle for eating strawberries picked in California and ripened with ethylene.

Theologis, A: One rotten apple spoils the whole bushel: The role of Ethylene in fruit ripening. Cell (1992), Vol 70, pp. 181-184.

True or False: Carbohydrate loading improves aerobic exercise performance?

Posted on June 6, 2019

True.

Carbohydrate loading, also sometimes referred to as carb or carbo loading, glycogen loading and glycogen super compensation, is a strategy used by athletes to improve performance in endurance events usually lasting longer than 90 minutes.

The practice has been around since the 1960s, when scientists first noticed that low-carbohydrate diets resulted in depleted glycogen stores and quicker fatigue in research participants. These studies also showed that eating diets high in carbohydrates resulted in enhanced glycogen stores and prolonged endurance times.

Glycogen is carbohydrates (energy) stored primarily in the liver and mus- cles. When we exercise, we draw on glycogen for fuel. When we engage in long endurance events—a marathon, triathlon or 100-mile cycling race, for example—our glycogen stores become very important. Without energy to keep our bodies going during these long-distance challenges, fatigue sets in faster, and our overall performance is greatly diminished.

The first protocol used for carbohydrate loading, often referred to as the classic approach, had athletes drastically cutting back on carbs 5–6 days before an event and doing lots of intense exercise. They took in an abundance of carbs 2–3 days before the event, at the same time reducing their activity level.

 

The goal was to deplete glycogen stores, both by cutting back on carbs and doing the intense exercise, so that when they upped their carbohydrate intake, cells in the body would be much more receptive or sensitive to carbohydrates and to storing them for future use.

This classic approach worked, but it wasn’t popular with athletes. If you have ever tried to perform intense exercise on a low-carbohydrate diet, you know why. Subsequent studies have shown that you don’t need to go through the glycogen-depleting process in order to improve performance with carbohydrate loading.

Now the general protocol for carbohydrate loading is to increase carbohydrate intake 2–3 days prior to an event and to combine that with tapered or reduced activity.

Many studies on athletic performance have shown that carbohydrate loading improves performance by 2–3%. at might not sound like a lot to some people, but in a marathon, that could be the difference between win- ning and not even finishing in the top 10–20% of runners.

Sedlock (2008), in an article published in Current Sports Medicine Reports, stated that the ergogenic (performance-enhancing) value of carbohydrate loading and associated physiological mechanisms has likely been studied more than any other singular performance-enhancing strategy. She also states that the ergogenic benefit of carbohydrate loading for endurance performance is a widely accepted tenet.

So yes, carbohydrate loading does improve aerobic performance. For most of us who are considered general recreational athletes, we will probably never need to go through a carbohydrate-loading regimen. As I finish this chapter, my cute little dog Scout is looking at me with great anticipation to take him for a walk, which I am gladly going to do. Carbohydrate loading likely wouldn’t help me much during that 30-minute outing.

However, if you are planning on participating in an endurance activity that will last 90 minutes or longer, then carbohydrate loading could help delay fatigue and have a positive impact on your overall performance.

Sedlock, D.: The latest on carbohydrate loading: A practical approach. Current Sports Medicine Reports (2008), Vol 7, pp. 209-213.

True or False: Eating garlic lowers cholesterol?

Posted on April 24, 2019

False.

GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) is often used to flavor foods and is well known for its strong, distinctive odor. Because of its aromatic properties, garlic is sometimes affectionately referred to as the “stinking rose.”

Many years ago my wife and I went to San Francisco to attend a conference, and while on a long walk we came across a restaurant called The Stinking Rose. She LOVES garlic, so we decided to stop for dinner.

I’ll never forget the overwhelming smell of garlic when we walked in    the door. I’ll also never forget the first item on the menu: 50 Clove Garlic Chicken Breast—chicken breast adorned with 50 cloves of garlic. My wife was in heaven!

Garlic contains allicin, which has been shown to kill some bacteria and fungi. Garlic is touted for having many health benefits such as preventing colds and the flu as well as lowering high blood pressure and  cholesterol.

But let’s focus on whether garlic is effective at lowering cholesterol, and let’s begin by reviewing the two types of cholesterol we measure: LDL and HDL.

LDL, or low-density lipoprotein (often called bad cholesterol), is a fat/ protein complex that carries cholesterol to the arteries and contributes to cardiovascular disease.

HDL, or high-density lipoprotein (often called good cholesterol), is a fat/ protein complex that carries cholesterol from the arteries to the liver for removal and helps decrease the risk of cardiovascular  disease.

Health professionals recommend keeping total cholesterol below 200 mg/dl and LDL cholesterol below 100 mg/dl. Ideally, HDL should be 60 mg/dl or higher.

Now back to garlic. Garlic can be eaten raw or can be taken as a supplement available as a powder, tablet or capsule. Garlic is generally considered to be safe, but there can be some mild side effects from garlic such as bad breath, general body odor and gastrointestinal distress.

It is also important to note that garlic can affect the body’s ability to clot blood, so individuals taking a blood thinner should talk to their physician if they decide to start eating lots of garlic or taking a garlic supplement.

The author Khoo (2009) published a meta-analysis in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics on whether garlic lowers cholesterol levels. Khoo identified 1,228 research articles on garlic and, using strict inclusion criteria to ensure that he chose only studies of the highest quality, identified 13 research studies that tested 1,056 subjects. Khoo’s findings: “The available evidence from randomized controlled trials does not demonstrate any beneficial effects of garlic on serum cholesterol.”

Khoo also states that recommendations by proponents of complementary and alternative medicine to increase garlic consumption as a way to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease should be viewed with caution.

I’m not a huge garlic fan, but I do think it adds a desirable flavor to many of the foods we prepare at home. If my wife and I ever take another trip to San Francisco, you can bet that we will likely make a repeat visit to The Stinking Rose restaurant.

Khoo., Y.: Garlic supplementation and serum cholesterol: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics (2009), Vol 34, pp. 133-145.

True or False: Grapefruit juice can impact many medications?

Posted on April 2, 2019

True.

I WASN’T MUCH of a grapefruit fan growing up—that is, unless my mother cut the grapefruit in half, separated the pulpy and meaty portion of the fruit from the tough—and sometimes bitter—skin surrounding it, and covered the entire surface with sugar.

I find it interesting that my kids are the same way—and they weren’t even around when I was growing up! As an adult I now enjoy peeling a grapefruit and eating it slice-by-slice, the way most people eat oranges.

Grapefruit is healthy; it’s low in calories, it contains lots of vitamins and minerals, it’s a good source of fiber, and it contains antioxidants. Most of us can consider grapefruit a “safe” fruit.

However, it is true that grapefruit or its juice can have a negative impact on many medications. You should exercise caution if you take medication and you want to eat grapefruit or drink grapefruit  juice.

Grapefruit juice doesn’t interact directly with medications; it inhibits an enzyme in your small intestine that works to break down certain medica- tions. Interfering with that enzyme can result in too much medication enter- ing your blood, potentially leading to a dangerous situation.

This phenomenon was accidentally discovered in the late 1980s. Researchers investigating the interaction of alcohol and the prescription drug felodipine used grapefruit juice to cover up the taste of the alcohol. However, one result of the study was a large increase of felodipine in the blood of research participants.

Grapefruit juice can also have the opposite effect, lowering the concentra- tion of a few medications in the blood.

There are dozens of medications that can be negatively affected by grape- fruit juice, including those for pain control, hypertension, allergies, high cholesterol, depression, epilepsy, heart disease and asthma.

In an article published in Nutrition Journal, authors Kiani and Imam (2007) state, “Grapefruit juice is consumed widely in today’s health-conscious world as a protector against cardiovascular disease and cancers. It  has, however, been found to be an inhibitor of the intestinal cytochrome P-450 3A4 system, which is responsible for the first-pass metabolism of many drugs.”

The authors also cautioned, “In light of the wide-ranging effects of grape- fruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of various drugs, physicians need to be aware of these interactions and should make an attempt to warn and educate their patients regarding potential consequences of concomitant ingestion of these two items.”

Other citrus fruits that may interact with medications  include  Seville oranges and tangelos. Lemons, limes and regular oranges generally are thought to have a low risk of interacting with  medications.

If you take prescription or over-the-counter medications, have a conversation with your doctor or pharmacist if you wish to eat grapefruit or drink grapefruit juice.

Kiani, J., & Imam, S.: Medicinal importance of grapefruit juice and its interaction with various drugs. Nutrition Journal (2007), Vol 6, pp. 33-41.

 

True or False: Expensive vitamins are better for you than store brands?

Posted on February 15, 2019

False.

THE HUSTLE AND bustle of today’s busy world makes it difficult for many people to eat a healthful diet. It takes planning and effort to get to the grocery store, buy wholesome food and find time to prepare   it.

All of the registered dieticians I’ve spoken to over the years about vitamins—R.D.s are the gold standard for individuals giving nutritional advice— have told me it is ideal to get the nutrients your body needs directly from the food and beverages you consume.

But not everyone does that. Too often, it’s easier to opt for processed and fast-food options, a choice that can leave us far short of getting all of the nutrients we need to be healthy. Most of us realize that, which is no doubt why roughly 40% of Americans spend billions of dollars on vitamin supplements every year.

We shouldn’t be surprised that vitamin manufacturers have convinced us that taking vitamins can be fun—especially children’s vitamins that are more like candy than a supplement. I can’t tell you the number of times I’ve tried to help my kids decipher if the vitamin they were about to devour was a Tyrannosaurus Rex or a Velaciraptor. The gummy vitamins were even harder to figure out: Was that a penguin, a polar bear or an arctic fox? It didn’t matter … down they went!

Some people ask whether expensive vitamins absorb better in your body. Others are suspicious about contaminants in vitamins. (Because vitamins are considered a dietary supplement and not a food, there are no strict Food and Drug Administration guidelines for manufacturing vitamins.) Yet others wonder if the vitamins really contain the nutrients listed on the label.

In 2010, Consumer Reports surveyed over 2,000 adults and found that over half worried that vitamins contained harmful ingredients, and nearly half feared that their vitamins didn’t contain the nutrients claimed on the label.

The following from Consumer Reports Magazine (2010) details tests and results. “Our tests of 21 multivitamins at two outside labs—including leading brands, five for seniors, and six for children—will allay some of those fears. All but one of the products we tested met their label claims for key essential vitamins and minerals, and none contained worrisome levels of contaminants such as arsenic or heavy metals. Most of the pills we tested  also passed the U.S. Pharmacopeia’s dissolution test, which involves immersing them in a simulated stomach-acid solution to determine whether they’ll dissolve properly in your body. What’s more, we found that store brands did just as well in our tests as national brands, at a lower price.”

My wife and I no longer take a daily multivitamin, nor do we buy them for our kids. Instead, we try to eat lots of whole grains and a wide variety of fruits and veggies. However, when we were taking vitamins, I was aware that some of the brand-name variety could cost two or even three times more than store brands. I found that especially interesting, as many store-brand and national-brand vitamins are produced by the same manufacturer.

Here’s the bottom line: If you do take vitamins, you can feel relatively certain that, regardless of how much you pay for them, they are safe, they contain the nutrients their label claims, and they are dissolving in your body. What might remain uncertain is which of the Flintstone’s characters your child is about to eat.

Consumer Reports. Multivitamins: Most we tested were fine, so select by choice. Consumer Reports Magazine: September 2010. www.consumerreports.org/cro/magazine- archive/2010/september/health/multivitamins/overview/index.htm. Accessed 1-3-13.

True or False: Honey is an effective cough suppressant?

Posted on December 17, 2018

True.

HOME REMEDIES FOR the common cold and other minor ailments often have great appeal because of reduced cost and decreased risk of side effects, which might not be the case with prescription medications. For decades, parents turned to over-the-counter cough medicines containing drugs such as dextromethorphan or diphenhydramine to relieve their children’s nagging coughs.

As parents of three, my wife and I have spent a fair number of near-sleepless nights consoling our restless children when they were suffering from hacking coughs. I remember making more than one trip to the grocery or drug store late into the evening hours to fetch cough medicines we thought would help.

That ceased in 2007, when the Food and Drug Administration questioned both the effectiveness and safety of these cough suppressants for young chil- dren. That’s when we started looking for a more natural remedy for our kids’ persistent coughing, and that’s when we first tried honey. As we talked to more parents, we learned that many of them used honey to help control coughing in sick children.

We discovered that honey really does work, and it has been verified in a number of published studies. One high-quality—in other words, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled—research investigation conducted by Cohen and colleagues (2012) and reported in the journal Pediatrics examined the effect of honey on nocturnal cough and sleep quality.

In the article, the authors conclude, “Parents rated each of the honey products more favorably than the silan date extract (placebo) for symptomatic relief of their children’s nocturnal cough and sleep difficulty due to upper respiratory tract infections (URI). Honey may be a preferable treatment of cough and sleep difficulties associated with childhood URI. In light of this study, honey can be considered an effective and safe treatment of children greater than 1 year of age.”

Caution: You should avoid giving honey to children under 1 year of age, as there is a risk of botulism.

Honey could help control coughing by coating the back of the throat, thus reducing irritation from persistent coughing. And honey has antioxidant as well as antimicrobial properties that might be beneficial. The sweet flavor of the honey could result in a child’s body creating more saliva, thus reducing the thickness of throat mucus.

You can mix a teaspoon or two of honey with warm water or tea, or you can just take the honey directly. Mixing the honey with warm liquids dilutes it some and potentially reduces the effectiveness. If you or your children can stomach it, try mixing the honey with vinegar. We’ve found this to be even more effective than just plain honey. (Vinegar will have its own chapter in another volume.)

One other caution: Some children are allergic to honey, as we learned when we gave our middle child his first-ever teaspoon of honey late one evening for his cough. His body’s reaction resulted in a trip to urgent  care.

We usually try to control a cough only if it is persistent or is disrupting sleep. All coughing isn’t necessarily bad; it is one way your body works to clear mucus from your  throat.

If you’ve never thought about using honey to help control coughing, I’d recommend giving it a try. It has really worked for our family. And if you’re feeling especially brave, mix it with a teaspoon of vinegar.

Cohen, H., Rozen, J., Kristal, H., Laks, Y., Berkovitch, M., Uziel, Y., Kozer, E., Pomeranz, A., & Efrat, H.: Effect of honey on nocturnal cough and sleep quality: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Pediatrics (2012), Vol 130, pp. 465-471.

True or False: Drinking water before a meal helps you eat less?

Posted on September 26, 2018

True.

WHEN I STARTED writing about health myths and misconceptions, I had no idea I would be writing so much about water! I reviewed my first book, 25 Ways To Cure The Hiccups: Uncovering The Truth Behind 101 Myths and Misconceptions, and found the  following:

  • Myth 6 explores whether it is possible to drink too much water when exercising.
  • Myth 14 considers the concept that we should drink 64 ounces of water a day.
  • Myth 39 examines whether we are already dehydrated if we don’t drink water until we start to feel thirsty.
  • Myth 59 investigates if water heated in a microwave can erupt and cause severe burns.

So far in this book, we have evaluated if many brands of bottled water are simply tap water (Myth 16) and if you burn more calories by drinking ice water (Myth 17). And there are more water-related topics to come!

I’ve previously shared that roughly 65% of us are either overweight or obese, so I’m seldom surprised to hear the many interesting things people do in their attempts to lose weight. The idea that drinking water before eating can promote weight loss has been around for some time, and I’ve heard more than one registered dietitian advise overweight people to try it. But is it true? I was surprised to learn that this topic hasn’t been studied much. However,I did find research conducted by Dennis and colleagues (2010) and published in the journal Obesity.

Researchers investigated whether having adults ranging in age from 55–75 drink 16 ounces of water (about two measuring cups full) prior to eating breakfast, lunch and dinner resulted in the consumption of fewer calories. Research participants were already on a low-calorie diet: 1,500 calories per day for men and 1,200 calories per day for women.

After three months of following this regimen, the participants who drank 16 ounces of water prior to eating lost, on average, 15.5 pounds compared to an average loss of 11 pounds for participants who drank no water prior to eating. So the water drinkers lost weight at a 44% higher rate than those who didn’t drink water before meals.

Other research suggests that drinking water prior to eating is effective in reducing caloric intake for individuals older than 60 who are not on low- calorie diets, but pre-meal water consumption may not have the same effect for folks in the 20–35 age range.

The idea that drinking water before meals leads to weight loss triggers my “If it’s too good to be true, it probably is” reaction. But it really does appear to be the case, especially for individuals beyond age 50. What’s the explanation? According to the referenced article, drinking water prior to eating “may aid in increasing fullness, thereby promoting a reduction in meal energy intake.” Drinking water might also help decrease feelings of hunger, which could result in fewer calories consumed during  meals.

It also is possible that water consumption could replace sugary drinks people sometimes drink with meals, resulting in even lower caloric intake.

Drinking a couple of glasses of water prior to meals likely won’t lead to pounds of fat magically disappearing, but it does appear to be a reasonable and healthy way to decrease the number of calories we consume. And that calorie reduction is what could have a modest impact on weight-control efforts.

Before writing this chapter, I didn’t make it a habit to drink water before meals, but I’m going to start!

Dennis, E., Dengo, A., Comber, D., Flack, K., Savla, J., Davy, K., & Davy, B.: Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged  and older adults. Obesity (2010), Vol 18, pp. 300-307.

True or False- Jell-O is good for your knees because it has ground up cartilage in it?

Posted on August 19, 2018

False.

We established in chapter 15 that gelatin is made by boiling the bones, skins and hides of cows and pigs. When I sent that chapter to my editor, she said it reminded her of a tape she listened to years ago that described how eating cartilage from chicken bones was helpful in preventing arthritis.

She also said she consumes two envelopes of unflavored gelatin every morning to help stave off arthritis. Let’s explore if that is really effective.

Whether you talk to highly competitive athletes or to individuals in their 60s, 70s or 80s, joint pain is a common complaint. I spoke to a group of retired educators shortly before I wrote this chapter, and following the presentation, I had a long discussion with a woman who said she doesn’t exercise at all because of pain in her knees.

As someone who has been working in the areas of health and fitness for the past 20 years or so, I can confidently say that I’ve heard this complaint hundreds of times.

When the cartilage that  covers  our  bones  (called  hyaline  or  articular cartilage) incurs damage, we experience inflammation, pain and decreased range of  motion. Because this  affects millions upon millions of people, it makes sense that we might look for simple and inexpensive remedies such as taking  gelatin.

From the reading I’ve done, it appears that gelatin is good for strengthening hair and fingernails and for protecting our joints. This might be a legitimate claim, because gelatin contains the amino acids proline and glycine, which are thought to be particularly important for healthy cartilage.

As I began conducting research for this chapter, it became obvious that there is very little published research on the topic. I did find a report of a study conducted at Ball State University indicating that a gelatin supplement improved joint pain in athletes. Unfortunately, the study was never published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, nor were the details or specifics of the study released.

Plus this particular study was funded by the company that created the supplement, raising even more questions about its validity.

In an online WebMD article, Timothy McAlindon, M.D., MPH, was quoted as saying, “If gelatin was protective [for stiff knees] there’d be less osteoarthritis in this country and not more, because it’s widely contained in foods.”

There is some evidence that pharmaceutical-grade collagen hydrolysate (hydrolyzed gelatin products) may be beneficial in the treatment of osteoar- thritis and osteoporosis. In a review article on the topic, Moskowitch (2000) stated, “Collagen hydrolysate is of interest as a therapeutic agent of potential utility in the treatment of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.”

“Is of interest” certainly doesn’t equal good scientific evidence, in my opinion. In addition, the studies conducted with gelatin supplements and pharmaceutical gelatin are using different and more-concentrated forms of gelatin then you would find in, for example, commercial Jell-O.

I will continue to enjoy Jell-O on occasion; however, I don’t believe it will improve the health of my knees, which have been subjected to a number years of self-inflicted abuse from wrestling, track and football.

Reference: Moskowitch, R. Role of Collagen Hydrolysate in Bone and Joint Disease. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism (2000), Vol 30, pp. 87-99.

True or False- Freshman in college gain on average 15 pounds?

Posted on June 17, 2018

False.

We often hear “The Freshman 15” to express the amount of weight supposedly gained by students in their first year of college. I’ve had the privilege of teaching health-related courses on college campuses in New York, Colorado and Wisconsin, so I’ve often dealt with this topic in classes and in my speaking engagements.

It is indeed true that most college students gain weight during their first year; however, it is not nearly 15 pounds. We’ll talk more about the actual number in just a bit.

First, I would like to explore factors that contribute to weight gain in college freshmen. One is alcohol consumption. A single drink can contain from 100–150 calories, so a student who consumes eight or 10 drinks in a night out with friends could be adding 800–1,500 calories that day. And students who have been drinking are often more likely to make a late-night food run; Taco Bell is one favorite. Those extra calories add up!

Some students get into trouble with the buffet/cafeteria-style all-you-can- eat dining services available on most college campuses. They return for two or three entrees, a variety of not-so-healthy side dishes and multiple high-calorie desserts. Who wouldn’t be tempted to end each meal with a huge soft-serve vanilla ice cream cone! Again, the new lifestyle offers lots of extra calories.

Many college students are less active than they were in high school. When I pose the question of how many students were involved in two or three sports in high school, routinely 80–90% of them raise their hands. A very small percentage of those same students compete in college athletics. They no longer engage in daily two-hour practices as they did in high school, so less physical activity means burning fewer calories.

Plus college can be hectic; many students hold part-time jobs and find  that college-level classes require more study time. Both scenarios can negatively affect their levels of physical activity.

So just how many pounds do college freshman gain that first year? A large review article published in the Journal of American College Health by Vella-Zarb and colleagues (2009) reports results from 24 studies that examined weight gain in college freshman. The authors concluded, “Weight gain occurs during freshman year, although the amount of weight gained tends to be much less than the ‘Freshman 15’ suggests. Typical weight gain is closer to 5 lbs. than to 15 lbs.”

I think it’s interesting to note that young adults 18–19 years old who don’t go to college gain about the same amount of weight as those who do attend college. So perhaps a general lifestyle change, rather than entering college, is responsible for weight gain in this young-adult population.

Vella-Zarb, R., and Elgar, F. The ‘Freshman 5’: A meta-analysis of weight gain in the freshman year of college. Journal of American College Health (2009), Vol 58, pp. 161-166.